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Emergency Update
Emergency Update, CRDA News July 2004 Issue
Belg Performance Poor
Additional Pledges Urgently Needed Perspectives of Food Availability and Aid
  Emergency Update, CRDA News May/June 2004 Issue
G8 Pledges to End Famine in the Horn of Africa
Pledges required to fill the shortfall in relief food aid
Resettlement Update
  Emergency Update, CRDA News April 2004 Issue
Belg Harvest not Likely
Worrying Reports from Resettlement Sites
April Critical Shortfall
  Emergency Update, CRDA News February Issue
Pledges for Food Aid Vs. Need
Farmers in Distress
Food Aid Use
Critical event over the next 10 months, USAID Famine Early Warning System Network
  Emergency Update, CRDA News January Issue
Ethiopia Food Security Update
Decline in cereal prices
Situation update of critical regions
  NGOs Commended for their Outstanding Intervention
  7.2 million people in need of Food Assistance - Joint 2004 Appeal
  CRDA Hands Over 8750 Quintals of Nutritious Food to 11 NGOs
  Belg Assessment Disclosed
  "Breaking the Cycle of Recurrent Famine in Ethiopia" Conference Highlights
  Bob Geldo's Visit
  Concerns over Resettlement
  NGOs Call for Change in Food Aid Supplies
  Emergency Related Meetings
  Highlights of Emergency Situation
  CRDA Distributes 4000 Quintals of Highly Nutritious food among six members
  Shortfall of 64,000 MTs of Relief Supplies
  DPPC and UN Call for Increase in Food and Non-food Response
  CRDA Receives Donation for Drought
  NGOs Voice Concern
  Highlights of the Current Drought situation (February 24, 2002)
  National Committee formed to Facilitate Local Mobilization of Resources
For those interested to provide financial assistance to the emergency situation in Ethiopia, pleas be informed that from the total amount of funds you kindly provide the overhead cost will include:
Loading and unloading
Perdiem for the staff who work on the emergency activities
Wages for guards
Store Rent (on some occasions)
Monitoring and supervision costs during distribution of the emergency assistance.
  All these costs should not be more that 5% of the total project cost.
The Ethiopian Emergency Situation Briefing2002-2003
  Current Situation the different Regions
Tigray Region
Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region
Afar Region
Somali Region
Harari, Dire Dawa and Oromiya
Total Requirement for 2003
Requirements by month for the first quarter of 2003
  Highlights of the Current Situation
  The Forecast
  CRDA's Involvement in the Current Drought
The current emergency situation in Ethiopia is mainly the result of factors related to delay and spor adic nature of rainfall. A good belg (short rainy season) harvest in 2001 and good meher (main season) harvest in 2000 and 2001 allowed for only a short recovery period following the 1999/2000 drough t when over 10 million people received relief assistance. The 2002 - belg rain, which heavily determines food availability during the July - December period was poor in numerous areas, significantly reversing the high level of optimism that prevailed in the country earlier in the year. The adverse weather conditions experienced as of April 2002 affected both long and short maturing crops as well as livestock conditions, particularly in Afar and Somali Regions. Compounded by other factors, these dramatically reduced agricultural production and increased livestock mortality in both pastoral and agricultural areas.
Further aggravating this situation is the lack of off-farm income opportunities and low level of economic development generally, which curtails people's ability to cope with drought. In addition, some pastoral areas experiencing drought have therefore witnessed an increase in competition over scarce resources such as pasture and water, leading to conflict. This has curtailed pastoral mobility - an essential element of pastoral survival strategies against drought. It is also important to note that other factors outside of Government control are magnifying the extent of the problem. For example, a drop in the international price of Ethiopia's main cash crop - coffee - has reduced the Government's ability to provide additional cash resources to the crisis.
The consequences of poor belg rains, especially for the long cycle, high-yielding crops of maize and sorghum (constituting 40% of national production) were magnified when the main rains in many lowland areas were delayed between one and one-and-a half months and led to the widespread loss of these crops.
This, in turn, had immediate nutritional consequences as it limited the availability of green maize, normally consumed in the lean season before the main harvest. While farmers attempted to replant with short-cycle crops (e.g., teff, barley and pulses), these are much lower yielding and could only partially offset the reduced crop production, in some cases the replanted crops did not give any yield.
Depleted pasture and water resources in both pastoral and agricultural areas also significantly increased livestock mortality, declined the condition of remaining herds and caused a reduction in dairy products normally available during the 'hungry season' for direct consumption especially in Afar Region, and Shinille and Fik zones of Somali Region.
The Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC) and other bilateral and UN agencies confirmed in their various reports that for the year 2003 the number of people needing assistance is close to 11.3 million with an additional 3 million under close monitoring; resulting in a total of 14.3 million people affected by the drought.
  Current Situation in the different Regions
  Tigray Region
  Belg a minor rainy season that usually begins in January - February and ends in April - May
  Meher or Kiremt the main rainy season starts in June - July and ends in September - October.
  Emergency Food Security Reserve (EFSR) holds stocks of cereals that can be made available on loan basis against a written guarantee from concerned donors for repayment. This expedites distributions for in-kind contributions, international purchases and local purchases. the capacity of the EFSR is 400,000 mt.
  NationalDisaster Prevention and Preparedness Fund (NDPPF): Established in 2000, the objective of NDPPF is to "maintain a ready available cash reserve to rapidly respond to emergency situations to avert the impacts of disaster through the provision of short-term loans and grants to relief agencies until such a time that other sources can be mobilized."
  Chronic food insecurity:
Belg rains of 2002 were poor and failed to support crop production in South Tigray's Belg producing areas,
Production estimated to be 25% lower than that of last year,
High level migration from Central Tigray to West Tigray,
Serious malnutrition (11 percent Global Acute Malnutrition - GAM) twice as high as that in 2001 and 2000.
  Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region
Composed of six special woredas with 15 zones poor rains resulted in decline of staple crop production and also cash crops (coffee and peppers) that would have helped in filling the gap thus resulting in a serious lack of food.
Malnutrition rates are at serious levels (11 percent GAM)
      Situation could further deteriorate if transitional crops (potatoes and beans) fail
For this region, which is an entirely pastoral one, the belg rain was a complete failure causing widespread loss of livestock and severe shortages of food and water in many areas as temporary water points dried up earlier than usual. Contributing factors include restriction of early migration out of the zones to traditional grazing relief areas due to closure of access to pastures and conflict. Some argue that the region has experienced the worst disaster in the last decade or more.
    Water trucking and rationing for both human and livestock underway,
Interventions focus on preventing loss of human lives and further loss of essential assets such as breeding stock.
Livestock mortality rates range from 5 - 40 percent in the various woredas of the Afar zone. But these rates are likely to rise if rains continue to be scarce.
Conflict between communities in Shinile Zone and neighbouring Afar Region and drought in Afar and East and West Hararghe zones are limiting migration of livestock to traditional reserve grazing areas
People and animals are in dire need of water and food, in Afar Region
Conflict between communities in Shinile Zone and neighbouring Afar Region and drought in Afar and East and West Hararghe zones are limiting migration of livestock to traditional reserve grazing areas
  Harari, Dire Dawa and Oromiya
The extended drought in this area has caused a decline of production and in rapid and dramatic decline in nutritional status. East and West Hararge are the critically hit regions with a 15 Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) nutrition rate that is said to be the highest and unacceptable level of malnutrition in the country.
There are high rates of migration with more than 20,000 people living in displaced camps in Bale Zone and another 5000 in East Shewa zone. Signs of food stress such as decline in school attendance are also seen.
In good years the region produces around 33% of the national Meher grain production. However, this year, with the early secession of belg rain and the late start of the Kiremt rains, land preparation and planting was disturbed resulting in only 2% planted area. The major affected areas include the low land areas: Tekeze and Abay River gorges in Wag Hamra, South Gonder, East Goajam Zones and Noth Shewa, Oromiya, North Wollo zones.

Tigray and Amhara Regions:

2,100,000 & 4,000,000 respectively at risk due to delayed main rains.

Situation: Serious harvest cut backs and food shortage.

Needs: Emergency food aid



Afar Region:

1,100,000 at risk due to failed short & erratic long rains.

Situation: Large number of livestock dead and are still dying in massive numbers and human health is deteriorating. Competition for scarce water & grazing resources rampant Needs: Emergency food aid including supplementary food, veterinary drugs, water supply & essential human drugs & medical supplies are urgently needed.



1,600,000 at risk due to stunted staple and cash crops, poor small rains, intermittent dry spells, unfavorable production & market conditions and delayed main rains.

Situation: Long cycle crops, especially maize & sorghum, have failed in most areas.

Needs: Urgent need for immediate seed supply for short-cycle crop varieties (probably too late). Emergency food assistance in selected areas already on-going.

Oromiya Region:

4,100,000 at risk due to stunted staple and cash crops, poor small rains, intermittent dry spells, unfavorable production & market conditions and delayed main rains.

Situation: Arsi, Shewa, Bale, East & West Hararghe lowlands experience shortfall of rain, drought, stunted crops and unusual pastoralist & farmer migration.

Somali Region:

1,100,000 estimated to be at risk due to poor rains & including IDP caseload from 1999/2000. So far 337,000 in Shinille and 264,000 in Jijiga zone. Other areas of Somali Region are still under assessment.

Situation: Most affected are Shinille & Jijiga zones due to below normal short rains and poor main rains.
Needs: Emergency food aid including supplementary food, veterinary drugs, water supply & essential human drugs & medical supplies are urgently needed.

Affected Areas & Population at Risk, DPPC
Total requirements for 2003 are 11.3 million beneficiaries requiring 1.3 million Mt cereals, 124,000 Mt Supplementary Food and 4,000 Mt vegetable oil.
  Requirements by month for the first quarter of 2003:
Jan : Beneficiaries 7.4 million or 111,000 Mt
Feb : Beneficiaries 8.1 million or 121,500 Mt
Mar : Beneficiaries 9.9 million or 148,300 Mt

rFood Assistance Requirements (MT)

Water Assistance Requirements (USD)

Health, Nutrition & Other Sectors Assistance Requirements (USD)

Agricultural Assistance Requirements (USD)

Capacity Building Requirements (USD)

Total Non-FoodAssistance Required (USD) (shelter, rub-halls, blankets etc.)

Total Non-FoodAssistance Required (USD) (shelter, rub-halls, blankets etc.)

1,441,142 12,686,183 25,012,685 32,624,937 4,690,754 75,109,559
Summary of Assistance Requirements for 2003, DPPC/UNEUE
  Highlights of the Current situation
Food aid distribution/delivery is being done by both the Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission (DPPC) and NGOs, every month to drought affected areas,
      Pledges as at April 2003 stand relatively good with 72% of the needs for the year covered, so far.
Rains from December and more recently in March have replenished water and pasture resources and contributed to an improvement in livestock conditions in various regions especially in Amhara and Afar pastoralist areas.
The distribution of food grain is being conducted at a reduced ration of 12.5kg per person/month instead of 15kg per person/month due to lack of enough resources and this has been and is being advocated against by NGOs in the country that argued that this "amounts to slow starvation of those without other sources of food".
Currently, poor and critical malnutrition exists especially in the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region where people mainly children have started dying of severe malnutrition. Thus several therapeutic feeding centres opened in various woredas of SNNPR by NGOs.
There is a dire need of supplementary food to combat the ever-increasing malnutrition. The current available supplementary food is only 40% of the required amount, which is insufficient even with the picture of increasing needs yet to come.
    Price of grain is on the rise with the decreasing market supply.
    Serious water shortages being reported in Oromia and Somali regions.
Agricultural activities such as land preparation and planting of Belg and/or long-cycle Meher crops being carried out in some regions while on the other hand there are large plots of land left unplanted
Intra-regional resettlement activities started in mid-February 2003 whereby the drought affected people are moved, on voluntary bases, to sites that are less affected and with access to necessary living conditions within the region
Seeds (cereal and vegetable) are being distributed in various regions. Seeds that are improved and in most cases hybrid are distributed without fertilizer. This is said to reduce productivity and production for the next harvest
  The Forecast
FAO/WFP's December 2002 joint mission assessment report forecasts total pulse and cereal production to be about 9.27million tonnes, comprising of 8.92 million tonnes from the Meher harvest and a predicted 350,000 tonnes from the Belg harvest in 2003.
  As a result, the cereal import requirement in 2003 is estimated at nearly 2.3 million tonnes.
Food needs are expected to grow over the next 6 months peaking in June, with a possible respite for some areas if there are good February-June rains. However, in less than three months millions of subsistence farmers and pastoralist families will be faced with a desperate food situation.
FAO/WFP Special Report: Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to Ethiopia, January 2003
DPPC: Assistance Requirements and Implementation Strategy: 2002
DPPC and UN: Situation Update and Joint Flash Appeal August 2002
  CRDA's Involvement in the Current Drought
Prepared by the Information Management Department, CRDA
P.O.Box 5674, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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